The reality which faces the West that politicians dare not speak of
The rise of countries such as China, India, and Brazil will be a tectonic shift in economic power but it is also a change that is long overdue. The relative dominance of Europe and the United States in the global economy is a historical accident brought about by the early formation of capitalist economies in these parts of the world. The response to these new challengers will define the role that the United States and Europe play on the global stage in the future and the initial signs do not look good.
The Western world spearheaded by Europe and the United States have generated the bulk of the wealth in the global economy for most of the past century. As early ago as 1990, the United States accounted for around 23% of global GDP and the countries which now constitute the European Union accounted for roughly 32% while respectively only making up 5% and 9% of the world’s population. Yet, growth in the countries such as those grouped together under the label of BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India, and China) is the beginning of the end to this distortion in the distribution of global wealth. The BRICs countries, who accounted for just 8% of global GDP despite making up 43% of the number of people worldwide in 1990, have seen their share of global GDP increase to 18% as of 2010. The figures for the United States and the European Union have dropped back respectively to 23% and 26% in 2010 and this is a trend that will continue for decades into the future.
It is not that the economies in the United States and Europe have not been expanding in size but growth is not as easy to generate as elsewhere. Loading up on debt helped to create a booming economy for a while but excessive lending eventually brought about a deep economic slump (for more info, refer to Tale of Two Recessions). The global financial crisis has instead allowed other countries to catch up faster and to lay siege to the position of the United States and Europe at the top of the global pecking order. The concentration of wealth in these Western countries has allowed them easy access to resources such as agricultural produce and mineral deposits from around the global as well as ready markets for their manufacturing goods. But industrialization in countries which were previously just mainly sources of raw materials for the United States and Europe has given rise to competition – both in terms of other countries snapping up resources and of creating rivals to Western firms. Economic power has also allowed Europe and the United States to shape global institutions to their liking.
But this imbalance of wealth was never destined to last. The gap between the rich and poor became too great and plummeting transport costs meant that goods could be manufactured anywhere. The changes stemming from this will shape the world for generations to come and in ways which cannot yet be grasped. Rather than bracing themselves to face the reality of this new challenge, both Europe and the United States have been embroiled in domestic issues as politicians struggle to deal with growing levels of debt.
Economic theory espouses the benefits of free trade and an open economy where countries should specialise in what they are good at. For the United States and Europe, this would be high-tech or high-value-added sectors such as product design, computer software, and precision manufacturing which make use of their skilled workers. Yet, Western governments have shot themselves in the foot through mismanagement of their finances. The resulting masses of public debt have restricted the ability of governments to invest in, for example, education which has suffered in many richer countries as governments focused more on cutting taxes.
Politicians in the United States and Europe need to be more honest with voters. It is easy to convince voters that the good times will return and to try and hold off the inevitable. But this will merely delay the day of reckoning and will make it so much worse than it needs to be when it does come around. Many current policies, such as reducing immigration even for skilled overseas workers, run completely against what needs to be done and suggest that politicians either do not grasp the changes already underway or prefer to pander to the preferences of a public who is adverse to change rather than confront them with reality. Sooner or later, this inconvenient truth will become apparent, but by then, it may be too late.